UL Fire Rated Doors, Windows and Related Hardware – Marking and Application Guide
FIRE, SMOKE, EGRESS, AND WINDSTORM RELATED APPLICATIONS
Fire and smoke protection – Building codes rely on fire and smoke protection features to safeguard the public and emergency responders from fire and smoke hazards. One aspect of this protection is based on limiting the movement of fire and smoke through the building using a compartmentation approach (also called the fire area). This includes requiring fire-resistance rated fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers, shaft enclosures, fire rated horizontal assemblies and fire rated doors and windows, to be provided to limit the spread of fire. It also includes requirements designed to limit the movement of smoke through the building using smoke barriers and partitions. This passive protection is an integral part of the overall safety scheme included in the model codes.
An important aspect of limiting the spread of fire and smoke is protecting openings in the fire and smoke rated assemblies that are provided to allow the building to be functional. Opening protective products and systems are provided to protect these openings. These include fire doors and frames, hardware, fire windows and frames, and leakage rated door and window assemblies.
UL certifies a wide range of products and systems that are covered by opening protective requirements in model building codes. These products and materials create systems, and the applications for which they are certified are covered in detail in this guide. Since some of the products and systems are also certified for use as part of the building’s means of egress system or for resilience from damage from wind-borne debris, information on these applications is also covered in this guide. Doors, windows, and related hardware that have been certified by UL to provide protection against burglary, robbery or theft or for access control are not covered in this guide. More information on those products is located in UL’s Product iQ database under security equipment.
Means of egress – Doors serving a means of egress system are required by model building and life safety codes to meet specific requirements that help provide a continuous and unobstructed path of travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. UL certifies doors and hardware that are specifically evaluated for use as part of the means of egress system.
Windstorm rated assemblies – Concern about potential damage to building exteriors caused by high wind events. such as hurricanes and tornadoes, has resulted in regulations being adopted to provide resilience from wind-borne debris and the effects of high windspeeds and wind load. UL certifies windstorm rated doors, hardware and other building assemblies for use in these applications.
This guide was developed for use by code authorities, architects, engineers, contractors, installers and other interested parties to help them determine how UL Certified opening protectives can be used in code compliant installations.
A. USE OF THIS GUIDE
This guide is designed to help users locate, specify or verify UL Certified doors, windows and related hardware to meet applicable model code requirements for applications including fire and smoke protection, egress, and windstorm resilience. This guide explains the differences in product certification markings for each application. Additional information on the intended use or limitations that may apply and the standard(s) used to evaluate products under the product category is provided.
A four or five-letter code following each product category in this guide is the UL category code number (CCN), which identifies product categories under which products are certified by UL for the identified application.
Each UL CCN provides a direct link to the published Product Guide Information for the product category which is separate from the information contained in this Marking and Application Guide. The Product Guide Information includes the scope of the products and assemblies covered, information relating to limitations or special conditions applying to the product, the requirements used for the investigation of the products, general installation and use information, and information on product markings and the UL Mark to be used on the product. Product Guide information is available in the UL Product iQ database.
The product markings identified in this Guide do not include every possible marking that could be provided either on a product, product packaging or in its installation instructions, but provides an indication of the type of text and location of markings that address features that may be critical in determining if a product is certified for a particular application. With some applications, UL would recommend that the end user also reference installation standards maintained by industry associations or the NFPA as cited in each Guide (For example: NFPA 80 or SDI A250.11).
B. CERTIFICATION, LISTING AND CLASSIFICATION
Model codes and regulations may require certain products to be “Listed”, or “Listed and Labeled”. Products that UL has certified for use in applications where “listing” or “listing and labeling” are required in the code include a UL Certified, a UL Listed, or a UL Classified Mark. Collectively, these are referred to by UL in this Guide as marks. Products bearing any of these UL marks comply with the definition of a listed product in the code, and should be considered to be listed. The latest information about UL marks may be found online at https://marks.ul.com/about/
The UL Mark on a product means UL has tested and/or evaluated representative samples of that product and determined that they meet the requirements in the applicable standard(s). The production of UL Certified products is periodically audited by UL Staff at the manufacturing facility to verify that the products continue to comply with the applicable requirements in the standard used to evaluate the products.
C. IDENTIFICATION OF UL CERTIFIED PRODUCTS
UL Certified products are eligible to bear one of the following Certification Marks, namely the UL Certified Mark, UL Listing Mark, or UL Classification Mark. Refer to product category guide information for specific marking requirements. Products not bearing a UL Mark are not considered to be UL Certified.
UL Certified Mark
UL Listing Mark
UL Classification Mark
D. FIELD EVALUATIONS
You may encounter situations in which you are unable to determine if a product has been listed by a third-party organization. Or in other situations, you might encounter a product bearing a listing label that may have subsequently been modified in the field, and now you question whether or not the product still complies with the applicable standard. UL offers a field evaluation service that provides a method to assist you in making your decision whether to accept the product and/or approve the installation. The field evaluation service is available for the evaluation of doors and frames. Anyone directly involved with a product – including manufacturers, owners, contractors, and regulatory authorities – can request a Field Evaluation. Detailed information for this program can be found on UL’s Field Evaluation.
2. OPENING PROTECTIVES
A. FIRE-RESISTANCE RATED GLAZING
Fire-resistance rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance rated wall assembly in accordance with the Standard for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, UL 263 (ASTM E119), is covered under the Fire-resistance Rated Glazing Materials (CCET) category. These materials are investigated for use in (BXUV) fire-resistance designs. The glazing materials have been investigated for use in specific fire-resistive floor-ceiling, wall and/ or partition constructions with respect to (1) construction details, and (2) maximum size of individual glazing panels, as described in the individual design (BXUV). This type of glazing material provides the insulation properties needed to achieve compliance with the UL 263 temperature rise requirements.
Assemblies incorporating fire-resistance rated glazing comply with all of the requirements that a fire-resistance rated wall must meet (e.g. prevent fire transmission, limit elevated unexposed surface temperatures and withstanding the impact of a hose stream). Therefore, codes do not limit the quantity or the size of the fire-resistance rated glazing that can be used in a wall. These materials typically are much thicker than the common ¼ in. or 3/8 in. thick. fire protection rated products. These materials have not been investigated by UL to determine compliance with safety glazing requirements.
UL Certified fire-resistance rated glazing materials include the word CLASSIFIED above the UL symbol and the manufacturer’s identification. The UL Certification marking for fire-resistance rated glazing materials intended for use in fire-resistance rated walls includes an identifier in the form:
W – xxx
Where “W” indicates the glazing meets the wall assembly criteria and “xxx” indicates the fire-resistance rating period in minutes
B. FIRE-PROTECTION RATED GLAZING
Fire-protection Rated Glazing Materials (KCMZ) are intended for use in fire windows, fire doors and fire door frames with transoms and/or sidelights that are provided with suitable glazing frame members. These products are investigated in accordance with UL 9, Standard for Fire Tests of Window Assemblies. These products are Classified for fire ratings of 3/4 hour, 1 hour, 1-1/2 hours, and 3 hours, or a fire rating of 20 min fire-protection rated without hose stream as indicated in the individual Classifications.
Fire-protection rated glazing materials are intended for installation in fire windows, fire doors, and fire door frames with transoms and/or sidelights that are provided with suitable glazing frame members. Unless otherwise indicated in the individual Certifications, these materials have not been investigated by UL to determine compliance with safety glazing requirements.
UL Certified glazing materials include the word “CERTIFIED” or “CLASSIFIED” above the UL symbol and the manufacturer’s identification. The marking for glazing materials intended for use in fire doors includes the following information:
- “D” indicates the glazing is suitable for use in fire door assemblies
- “H” indicates compliance with the hose stream requirements of the standard
- “NH” indicates the glazing has not been subjected to the hose stream requirements of the standard
- “T” indicates the glazing material has a temperature rating, which is defined as a maximum unexposed surface temperature of 450°F when measured at 30 minutes during the standard fire test
- “NT” indicates the glazing material does not have a temperature rating, which is defined as a maximum unexposed surface temperature in excess of 450°F when measured at 30 minutes during the standard fire test
- “xxx” indicates the fire-protection-rating period in minutes
The marking for glazing materials intended for use in fire windows includes the following information:
- The UL symbol with the words “CERTIFIED” and “SAFETY” (when using the Alternate UL Mark, the UL symbol with the word “CLASSIFIED” above the UL symbol)
- Manufacturer name or identification
- ANSI/UL 9
- OH – xxx
- Where “OH” indicates compliance with the fire and hose stream requirements of the standard and “xxx” indicates the fire-protection-rating period in minutes
C. FIRE DOORS
UL certifies fire doors under a variety of different product categories that reflect the type or use of the door and the criteria used to evaluate them. See Appendix A for a complete list of fire door product categories, and the UL Standards used to certify doors under these categories.
Some fire doors are supplied as complete assemblies, including the frame, hardware and other accessories. In other cases, fire doors are supplied independently from the other components, and are assembled at the job site with the fire door frame, glazing, hardware, and/or other accessories to form a fire door assembly, which provides the degree of fire protection required for the opening.
Fire-protection ratings – Fire doors include a rating of 4, 3, 1-1/2, 1, and ¾ hours, or 30 or 20 minutes, which indicates the duration of exposure to fire. For products intended for use in regions outside of North America, fire doors may be rated with a 2-hour rating in accordance with local building practices.
Temperature rise ratings – Some fire doors contain a temperature-rise rating on the Certification Mark. This rating is intended for use in determining compliance with the temperature-rise requirements contained in the International Building Code, NFPA 101, and NFPA 5000. A temperature-rise rating of 250°F, 450°F or 650°F reflects the limiting potential temperature rise on the unexposed surface of the door during the first 30 minutes of fire exposure. Certification Marks that do not indicate a temperature rise are for doors which either develop a temperature rise in excess of 650°F on the unexposed surface of the door or have not been evaluated for a temperature rise rating.
Glass lights in fire doors in excess of 100 sq. in. shall be fire-resistance rated and shall also be evaluated as a component of the door assembly in accordance with UL 10B or UL 10C where the door is rated for a duration greater than 45 minutes. Doors with glass light panels meeting the size limitations and the rating requirements of the installation code carry the same rating as similar doors without glass light panels.
Glazing materials – Glazing materials covered under the fire door categories are Classified for a fire-protection rating only. The glazing materials are to be installed in the fire doors in accordance with NFPA 80 and the installation instructions provided by the manufacturer of the door, glass light frame or glazing material. See Fire Door Glass Light Frames (GVVX) and Fire-protection Rated Glazing Materials (KCMZ).
A door prepared at the factory for a glass light may include the glazing members (frame) but normally does not include the glazing itself. When the door is shipped from the factory with an integral glass light frame pre-installed, the frame is considered part of the door construction and will not bear a separate Mark. Glazing materials are usually provided by other than the door manufacturer and are installed at the time of the door installation.
Oversized doors – Freight elevator type, rolling steel type, and sliding or swinging steel-covered composite type, hollow-metal type, metal-clad (Kalamein) type, sheet-metal type and tin-clad type are fire tested up to the sizes recorded in the listings published under their respective product categories. Doors exceeding this size limitation are supplied with a Classification Mark for Oversized Fire Door which indicates compliance (except for size), with all requirements for design, materials and construction of the product placed under the oversized program and are based upon the maximum size door that was fire tested.
Similarly, a Certification Mark for Passenger Elevator Fire Door Frame Assemblies incorporating a transom panel can be provided when such frame/transom panel assemblies, designed for use with specific Classified Passenger Elevator Fire Doors and Listed Passenger Elevator Fire Door Hardware, exceed the maximum heights which have been subjected to Standard Fire Tests. As with the oversize doors described above, prospective users should first ascertain from the code authority whether the oversize frame assembly is acceptable for any given location.
Positive pressure fire doors – Some code applications require swinging fire door assemblies to comply with the Standard for Positive Pressure Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, UL 10C. To assist in selecting components of fire door assemblies tested under positive pressure, eight categories, identified as A through J, were established. See Swinging-type Fire Doors, Positive-pressure Tested (GSZN) for certifications and category types. Categories A and B specifically indicate fire door rated for positive pressure and how the doors are to be installed.
Fire door markings – UL certified fire doors include the UL symbol, the word CERTIFIED or CLASSIFIED and the following information:
- Fire door category name (see Appendix A)
- Hourly rating (e.g. 4 HR, 3 HR, 1-1/2 HR, 1 HR, 3/4 HR, 30 MIN or 20 MIN)
- Temperature rise, if established – (e.g. 30 MIN – 250°F MAX, 30 MIN – 450°F MAX, 30 MIN – 650°F MAX or No Reference Provided)
Installation instructions – Fire doors are intended to be installed in accordance with the installation instructions provided by the manufacturer.
D. FIRE DOOR AND WINDOW FRAMES
UL fire door and window frames are certified under the Fire Door and Window Frames (GVTV)category. This category covers fire door frames, fire window frames, and 20-minute-type door frames or window frames fire tested without hose stream (where permitted). These frames are intended for installation in conjunction with fire doors, hardware, glazing and/or other accessories that together form a fire door assembly or a fire window assembly, which provides the degree of fire protection to the opening. The frames can be constructed from various materials including wood and steel.
Certification Mark considerations – UL certified fire door frames and window frames bear either a UL Listing Mark or a UL Certified Mark that appears on the frame where visible after installation. Fire doors, in comparison, include a UL Classification Mark or a UL Certified Mark, as described above.
Fire door frame and fire window frame Marks include the UL symbol, the word LISTED or CERTIFIED and a description of the certified product. This could include descriptions such as “Fire Door Frame”, “Transom or Sidelight Panel”, “Fire Window Frame (3/4 Hr., 1 Hr. Or 1-½ Hr.) Fire Rating”, “Sheet-Metal Mullion for Nonbearing Fire Window Frames” and similar wording. The Mark typically describes if the frame includes sidelights and/or transom panels, may include hourly ratings, and may describe if the frame was evaluated without hose stream.
When the Listing Mark of UL is stamped into the frame, one of the following abbreviated product identities may be used:
“FDF” in lieu of “Fire Door Frame”
“FDF-L” in lieu of “Fire Door Frame for Lights”
“FDF-P” in lieu of “Fire Door Frame with Panels”
“FDF-20” in lieu of “Fire Door Frame Fire Rating 20 Minutes”
“FDF-20 NH” in lieu of “20 Minute Type Door Frame Fire Tested Without Hose Stream”
Installation instructions – Fire door and fire window frames are intended to be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and SDI A250.11. Installation instructions are not required to be shipped with frames that are to be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and SDI A250.11. Installation details other than those specified in NFPA 80 and SDI A250.11 are shipped with the frames. Elevator door frames, wood frames and other special use frames as identified in the individual certifications are intended for installation only in walls of the types shown in the installation instructions accompanying the door or window frame.
Hourly fire-protection ratings – Door frames are intended for use in applications where codes require a minimum hourly rating for the overall door or window assembly. However frames may or may not be marked with hourly ratings. When combining doors, frames and hardware with different ratings the overall rating of the assembly will be the lesser of the ratings of any of the individual components.
Door frames bearing a UL Certification Mark without an hourly rating and provided with masonry wall anchors can be used in conjunction with fire doors rated up to 3 hours and installed in masonry walls having fire resistance ratings not less than the rating of the door.
Door frames bearing a UL Certification Mark without an hourly rating and provided with steel stud or wood stud anchors can be used in conjunction with fire doors rated up to 1-1/2 hours and installed in steel stud and wood stud walls steel stud cavity walls, steel stud shaft walls and wood stud cavity walls protected with gypsum board, having fire resistance ratings not less than the rating of the door nor more than 2 hours.
Elevator and special use frames – Elevator door frames, frames of the slip-on type, wood frames and other special use frames as identified in the individual certifications are for installation only in the walls of the types shown in the installation instructions accompanying the door frame.
Elevator door frames are intended for use with sliding freight or passenger elevator fire door designs for use in dry wall or masonry shaft construction, as identified in the individual certifications for door frames.
Special frames are constructed of materials other than steel and are intended for use with doors rated less than 3 hours. The hourly ratings for special frames are shown in the individual certifications.
Some special frames are intended for use with Certified fire doors and Certified transom panels of a specific design. These frames and the labeled components are identified in the individual certifications.
Mullions, transom panels and other features – Standard door frames are of the single-unit or three-section type and consist essentially of steel head and jamb members, including hardware reinforcements, wall anchors, door stops, and provisions for anchoring to the floor.
Door frames may be provided with mullions, transom panels, or transom lights. In addition to the steel head and jamb members, these frames should be equipped with a steel mullion, transom bar, steel-covered composite transom panel, and glazing beads. Transom panel frames of standard construction are for use with doors rated up to and including 1-1/2 hours. Transom light frames glazed with labeled glazing material are intended for use with doors rated a max of 3/4 hour.
Some manufacturers can provide labeled transom panel frames for use with doors rated up to and including 3 hours as indicated in the individual certifications. Some manufacturers can provide labeled transom frames with hollow-metal transom panels with or without a transom bar. Transoms of solid construction are for use with doors rated up to and including 1-1/2 hours (unless otherwise noted for 3 hours in the individual certifications). Some manufacturers can provide labeled door frames with side panels or sidelights. Frames with side panels are for use with doors rated up to and including 1-1/2 hours. Frames with sidelights glazed with labeled glazing material are intended for use with doors rated a max of 3/4 hour. Separately Certified and labeled wood or wood composite transom and side panels may also be installed into a labeled steel transom and or sidelight frame when the panels are properly labeled for the rating and application intended.
Double egress frames are intended for use with double egress door designs as identified in the individual certifications.
Oversized frames – Freight elevator, passenger elevator and swing-type fire door frames incorporating transom panels exceeding the heights eligible for certification and which have not been subjected to standard fire tests that are otherwise found to be in compliance (except for size) with all requirements for design, materials and construction can be provided with an Oversized Frame Listing Mark. These oversized frame assemblies are intended for use with specific Classified freight elevator fire doors, passenger elevator fire doors, or swinging fire doors. Code authorities should be consulted as to whether the assembly is acceptable for a specific location. The Certificate can be a separate certificate or a label certificate affixed to the assembly.
20-minute rated frames – 20-minute type door frames may be provided with sidelights and/or transom lights as indicated in the individual certifications.
Standard 20-minute type door frames are of the single-unit pressed steel type and consist essentially of steel head and jamb members, including hardware reinforcements, wall anchors, door stops and provisions for anchoring to the floor.
A 20-minute type door frame with a transom and/or sidelight prepared at the factory for the glazing material does not normally include the glazing material itself. These frames should be glazed with Classified Fire-protection Rated Glazing Materials (KCMZ).
20-minute type door frames fire tested without hose stream are intended for use with 20-minute rated door assemblies fire tested without hose stream. These frames are only intended for use in the applications specifically identified in the model codes, such as in door assemblies used in some corridor and smoke barrier applications.
Positive pressure frames – All three-sided hollow-metal frames, manufactured from No. 18 gauge or heavier steel or stainless steel and properly anchored, will comply with the positive pressure test requirements. UL does not require that these frames be marked for compliance with positive pressure. Every steel frame manufacturer under the Fire Door and Window Frames (GVTV) category is eligible to produce hollow-metal frames for compliance to positive pressure. Some manufacturers have opted to mark their frames for conformity to positive pressure as noted below.
Window frames – Fire window frames consist of sash and mullions of various designs. Fire window frames are Listed for a 3/4 hour or 1-hour fire rating. In addition, some window frames are Listed for 20-minutes without hose stream as indicated in the individual certifications. Fire window frames are intended to be installed in masonry-type walls unless otherwise identified in the individual certification.
Fire window frames intended to be installed in drywall construction, and supported directly by a noncombustible floor bear the supplemental marking “Fire Window Frame for Installation on Noncombustible Floor with Base Anchor Provided on Frame.”
Fire window frames intended to be installed above the floor in drywall construction should be installed as specified by the installation instructions provided with the window frame.
20-minute type window frames fire tested without hose stream are typically pressed steel window frames of the hollow-metal type. Standard 20-minute type window frames consist of formed steel sheet, reinforced as required, with a stationary-type single sash or with stationary type multiple sashes.
The window frame prepared at the factory for the glazing material does not always include the glazing material. Classified glazing material is usually provided by someone other than the window frame manufacturer and installed after installation of the window frame in the building.
Oversized frames – Fire window frames exceeding the height and width eligible for certification and which have not been subjected to standard fire tests that are otherwise found to be in compliance (except for size) with all requirements for design, materials and construction can be provided with an Oversized Frame Assemblies Certified or Listing Mark . Code authorities should be consulted as to whether the assembly is acceptable for a specific application.
E. LEAKAGE RATED DOOR ASSEMBLIES
Model codes may require doors installed in smoke partitions to meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly when tested in accordance with the Standard for Air Leakage Tests of Door Assemblies, UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly is often specified, and typically cannot exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot of door opening at 0.10 inch of water column for both the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature exposure test.
UL certifies products for use in these applications under the Leakage-rated Door Assemblies (OPBW) category. These assemblies consist of combinations of individual component products, which may include the door, frame, hardware, gasketing and other door accessories. This category consists of a diverse range of door types including swinging, sliding, coiling and curtain type products manufactured from aluminum, steel, wood and woven fabrics.
“S” rated door assemblies – Model codes often require fire doors installed in corridors and smoke barriers to meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly when tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly is often specified, and typically cannot exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot of door opening at 0.10 inch of water for both the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature (400°F) exposure test. Swinging fire doors, fire tested under positive pressure in accordance with UL 10C and bearing the Smoke and Draft Control Door “S” marking have been investigated in accordance with UL 1784 and were determined to have an air leakage rate of the door assembly not exceeding 3.0 cfm per square foot of door opening at 0.10 inch of water column? for both the ambient and elevated temperature conditions. These doors are intended to be installed in a Certified or Listed fire door frame and provided with a UL Certified or Classified Category H gasketing material for fire doors. Frame manufacturers may mark the frame with the letter “S” but this is not required by UL or by model codes.
Leakage-rated door assemblies are intended for installation in accordance with NFPA 105 and the installation instructions provided with each leakage-rated component. Leakage-rated door assemblies may be assembled at the job site, or may be factory assembled. Information concerning the specific air-leakage rating, mounting locations, installation clearances, and the like is provided in the detailed installation instructions accompanying each leakage-labeled product. The manufacturer’s certification information in the UL Product iQ database also describes the components used in the assembly.
Leakage ratings for door assemblies are determined at ambient air temperature (75°F) and/or elevated air temperature (400°F) and at three air pressure differentials including 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 in. water column.
Artificial bottom seals – UL 1784 allows for an artificial seal to be applied to the bottom 6 inches of the test sample in order to obtain information on the extent of air leakage through the perimeter of a test sample without the sample leakage being influenced by the clearance at the bottom of the door. The artificial seal may be any material, such as an impermeable plastic sheet or tape. The manufacturer chooses whether an artificial bottom seal is applied or not during the test.
NFPA 105 does not allow smoke door assemblies intended to be installed where pressurization is provided to control smoke movement to have an artificial bottom seal installed during the test. Alternately, the International Building Code requires enclosed elevator lobby doors to comply with smoke and draft control door assembly requirements when tested in accordance with UL
1784 without an artificial bottom seal.
Leakage rated door assemblies are not marked to indicate if they were tested with or without an artificial bottom seal. This information, if needed, should be available in the manufacturer’s installation instructions and may be indicated on the manufacturer’s OPBW Card available through the UL ProductIQ Tool.
F. FIRE DOOR AND WINDOW HARDWARE AND ACCESSORIES
Fire door and window hardware and accessories are certified under a variety of product categories. Hardware includes locks, latches, hinges, electric strikes, flush and surface bolts, viewers and fire exit hardware. Accessories include fire door coordinators, cladding materials, glass light frames, and gasketing and edge sealing materials. Fire door closers, holders and operators are also certified by UL.
Hardware and accessories may be installed at the manufacturer’s facility or at the job site. In all cases installation is to be done in accordance with NFPA 80, NFPA 105 and the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
Fire exit hardware – This hardware is intended for use on swinging fire doors to facilitate the safe egress of persons in the case of emergency, as well as provide fire protection for door assemblies. See the Means of Egress Related Door Certifications section for additional information. Only products bearing the UL Certified or Listed Fire Exit Hardware Label are rated for use on fire door assemblies and should not be confused with UL Certified Panic Hardware Label which is only intended for use on non-rated exit doors.
Gasketing and edge seal materials – There is often confusion about whether UL certified gasketing and edge seal materials are required for fire doors used in smoke barriers and smoke partitions. There are two product categories covering these materials. The Gasketing Materials for Fire Doors (GVWZ) category includes gasket materials investigated in accordance with the Standard for Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, UL 10B. The gasketing material is intended to be installed in accordance with the installation instructions packaged with the material. These materials have been investigated only with respect to determination that the materials do not adversely affect the fire rating of fire doors in which they are installed. Gasketing material identified for use at the meeting edges of pairs of doors is not intended to replace the astragal (if required by the door manufacturer) or to alter the clearance between doors, as specified in NFPA 80 or in the door manufacturer’s installation instructions. A product intended to alter the clearance or correct an excessive clearance after a door has been installed can be certified as a Miscellaneous Fire Door Acccessory or as a Miscellaneous Fire Door Accessory, Positive Pressure Tested (GVUY) and is not considered a gasketing product. These products must be installed following the manufacturer’s provided instructions.
The Positive-pressure Tested Gasketing and Edge-sealing Materials for Fire Doors (GVYI) category includes materials investigated in accordance with UL 10C. Gaskets and edge seals are categorized as previously discussed in the Positive Pressure Fire Doors section.
3. MEANS OF EGRESS RELATED DOOR CERTIFICATIONS
Model Code requirements – A key life safety concept in building and life safety codes is providing a means of egress system that allows occupants to safely evacuate a building during an emergency. The means of egress is intended to provide a continuous and unobstructed path of travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way.
Model codes include requirements for doors which serve the means of egress system, which are referred to as exit (egress) doors. Code requirements for exit doors include specific criteria that are not applicable for doors that are not in the means of egress travel path. These include the following:
- Model codes specify the minimum width of door openings, which varies depending on the occupancy or area which they serve, and the maximum length of projections into the clear width.
- Exit (egress) doors, with some exceptions, are required to be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type. They are also required to swing in the direction of egress travel where they serve a room or area containing 50 or more persons or certain occupancy types.
- Model codes include specific requirements for exit door hardware which includes the hardware mounting height, locks and latches, special locking arrangements, and delayed egress locks, and other locking arrangements.
- To minimize this risk of creating potential crowd crush problems at exit doors through which large numbers of people must pass, panic hardware is required in certain situations. For example exit doors serving a hazardous occupancy or exit doors serving spaces with an occupant load of 50 in certain occupancy types are not allowed to be provided with a latch or lock, unless it is listed panic hardware or fire exit hardware. Panic hardware is required to be listed in accordance with the Standard for Panic Hardware, UL 305, and fire exit hardware must be listed in accordance with UL 10C and UL 305. Additional information on panic hardware and UL 305 is included below.
UL certifications – UL certifies the following products for use with doors serving a building’s means of egress system. Product category codes are indicated below.
Controlled Exit Panic Devices (FULA). This category covers devices intended for mounting on outward swinging exit doors to facilitate the egress of occupants. When the system is activated, it is intended to monitor against unauthorized egress and allow exiting within 15 seconds, (or a maximum of 30 seconds when approved by the code authority). These devices are intended to allow immediate exit in case of power failure or upon activation of an automatic fire alarm system (fail-safe).
Certified products includes the UL symbol the word LISTED or CERTIFIED and Controlled Exit Panic Device.
Exit Doors (FUXV) – This category covers sliding, swinging and bifold doors incorporating a panel that can be manually opened to permit exit travel. The assembly consists of a frame, doors and necessary hardware. Exit doors are intended for use in applications where model codes allow power operated sliding or swinging doors, such as those installed in supermarkets.
In normal use these doors open upon the approach of a person or are provided with power-assisted manual operation. In the event of power failure, the door leaves open manually (fail-safe) to allow egress travel or close when necessary to safeguard the means of egress.
These doors are tested to verify that the release mechanism is constructed so that a horizontal force of 50 pounds or less will open the emergency panel. Exit doors are investigated in accordance with the UL Subject 1336 Outline of Investigation for Exit Doors. Certified exit doors include the UL symbol, the word LISTED or CERTIFIED, and Sliding Exit Door, Swinging Exit Door, Bifold Exit Door or Exit Door.
Exit Locks (FUQV) – This category covers locking hardware assemblies intended for mounting on outward swinging doors for the purpose of locking such exit doors against unauthorized egress. These products have not been investigated for a fire resistance classification. Devices so Classified are covered under Hardware (GWGR). Exit locks are investigated in accordance with the UL 305 standard for Panic Hardware. UL certified exit locks include the UL symbol, LISTED or CERTIFIED, and Exit Lock.
Fire Exit Hardware (GXHX) – This category covers devices intended for mounting on or integral with outward-swinging fire doors to facilitate the safe egress of persons in case of emergency. Fire exit hardware is investigated in accordance with UL 305 and UL 10C.
UL 305 requirements cover releasing devices actuated by an actuating bar (also referred to as a crossbar or push pad) or actuating paddle for outward-opening doors, designed to facilitate the egress of persons from buildings in the event of panic or other emergency. Among other criteria UL 305 requires the actuating bar to extend across not less than one half of the width of the door leaf. The actuating paddle is an arm, push plate or paddle which functions as the activating mechanism of an exit lock on the egress side of the door. The active surface of the actuating paddle must be visually and physically distinct from the rest of the device.
The model codes prohibit fire exit hardware from having a mechanical latch retraction or dogging mechanism as part of the construction. Latch retraction options are only permitted if they are electrically operated and can be connected to an initiating device or fire alarm control panel. Latch retraction options are factory supplied as part of the exit device or may be certified as an accessory for use with single-point locks or latches and fire exit hardware (GWVW) category.
UL certified fire exit hardware includes the UL symbol, LISTED or CERTIFIED, and Fire Exit Hardware. Fire exit hardware that is additionally investigated to the BHMA A156.3 Exit Devices standard is so indicated in the individual Listings.
Panic Hardware (FVSR) – This category covers devices intended for mounting on or integral with outward-swinging doors to facilitate the safe egress of persons in case of emergency. Panic hardware is investigated in accordance with UL 305.
UL 305 requirements cover releasing devices operated by an actuating bar (also referred to as a crossbar or push pad) or actuating paddle for outward-opening doors, designed to facilitate the egress of persons from buildings in the event emergency. Among other criteria UL 305 requires the actuating bar to extend across not less than one half of the width of the door leaf. The actuating paddle is an arm, push plate or paddle which functions as the activating mechanism of an exit lock on the egress side of the door. The active surface of the actuating paddle must be visually and physically distinct from the rest of the device.
UL certified panic hardware includes the UL symbol, LISTED or CERTIFIED, and Panic Hardware. Panic hardware that is additionally investigated to the BHMA A156.3 Exit Devices standard is so indicated in the individual Listings.
Special Locking Arrangements (FWAX) – This category covers assemblies intended to be mounted on door frames of outward-swinging exit doors for the purpose of locking such doors against unauthorized egress. These devices are designed to release automatically in case of a power failure or upon activation of an automatic fire-alarm system.
These devices are intended for use in applications where codes regulate special locking arrangements, delayed egress unlocking, access-controlled egress, and electromagnetically locked exit (egress) doors. Refer to individual manufacturer’s certifications to determine the applications for which their products are Listed.
The basic standard used to investigate special locking arrangements is the UL 294 Standard for Access Control System Units. UL certified special locking arrangements include the UL symbol, LISTED or CERTIFIED, SECURITY, and Special Locking Arrangement.
4. WINDSTORM RATED ASSEMBLIES
Concern about potential damage to building exteriors caused by high wind events such as hurricanes and tornadoes has spurred many states, including Florida and Texas, as well as the model codes to adopt regulations to increase resilience from windborne debris and the effects of high winds and static loads. Buildings constructed in specific regions of these states are required to comply with these criteria.
These additional regulations typically require Windstorm-rated Building Products (ZHBA) to comply with specific test protocols or standards and to be manufactured under a quality assurance program. UL certified windstorm rated building assemblies (ZHLA) clearly identifies the test criteria used during an investigation, and components and products (ZHLL) used within these assemblies are subject to an ongoing factory (quality control) audit inspection as part of UL’s Follow-Up Service program.
Windstorm Rated Swinging Door Components (ZHCH) – This category covers exterior swinging door components for use in exterior swinging-door assemblies, that have been investigated to specific test standards and protocols for specific ratings. Components within the assembly may include swinging doors (ZHCW), door frames (ZHDL), latching hardware (ZHEM), hinges (ZHDX) and other items, along with a description of the allowable wall constructions and, where applicable, the maximum impact energy resistance and maximum design pressure. Drawings are included as part of a rated assembly, along with descriptions of individual components and construction details. Each design also specifies the test standard(s) used and performance ratings achieved so code compliance can be determined. Windstorm rated products in the following categories include Certified products that have been investigated for use in the windstorm rated assemblies described above. These products, by themselves, have not been investigated for specific windstorm performance ratings, except as noted in the individual Classifications.
Windstorm Rated Exterior Swinging Doors (ZHCW) – This category covers exterior swinging doors intended for use as components in swinging door type windstorm-rated assemblies (not window assemblies, skylights, louvers or shutters). The performance of these doors is based upon test methods in ANSI/SDI-BHMA A250.13, Testing and Rating of Severe Windstorm Resistant Components for Swinging Door Assemblies.
Information needed to determine the acceptability of a particular installation is noted in individual Classifications. Doors prepared at the factory for glazing materials include the glazing members (framing) but are not required to include glazing itself. Glazing materials may be provided by other than the door manufacturer, and are installed at the same time as the door.
These products are intended to be installed in accordance with the installation instructions/manuals provided by the door manufacturer. The installation instructions include the type(s) and size(s) of glazing materials permitted, and the accessories or hardware permitted that are not Classified separately.
Windstorm Rated Door Frames (ZHDL) – This category covers door frames intended for use in swinging door windstorm-rated assemblies. The performance of door frames for exterior swinging doors as a component of an assembly is based upon test methods in SDI-BHMA A250.13. The manufacturer and model number of the frame, wall type, opening size, maximum design pressure and maximum impact energy resistance are identified in each Classification.
These door frames are intended to be installed in accordance with SDI A250.11, Recommended Erection Instructions for Steel Frames, unless indicated otherwise in the individual manufacturers’ Classifications.
These products are tested as part of a specific assembly or assemblies and include doors, frames, hardware, louvers, light kits and glazing. Products certified under the ZHLL category have been certified against various recognized model codes or regional test methods such as ASTM E330, ASTM E1886, ASTM E1996, TAS 201, TAS 202, TAS 203, or ICC-500 for storm shelters.
Other categories for Windstorm Rated Products — Product categories have been established to cover other products that have been investigated for use in windstorm rated assemblies, including:
- Glass Light Frames for Windstorm Rated Doors (ZHDO)
- Accessories for Windstorm Rated Swinging Doors (ZHCK).
Installation considerations – To determine if a particular windstorm rated assembly is suitable for use in a specific application, first identify all test standards or protocols and performance ratings specified by the codes or regulations being enforced. Then, review the appropriate windstorm rated assembly certification to determine if it complies with all mandated test criteria. Finally, verify that the assembly is constructed and installed in accordance with the details included in the individual certification, manufacturer’s instructions, and any applicable installation standards. Care should be taken to ensure that products used in the assembly include appropriate UL Certification Markings, as described in the design.
5. DOOR AND WINDOW SELECTION AND INSTALLATION
To properly select door and window assemblies, one needs to know and understand the building design criteria, applicable code requirements, and select the appropriate UL Certified products or systems. The following steps provide a systematic approach that can be followed to provide a safe, code compliant installation. This recommended approach can also be used by code authorities during the building plan review and final approval process.
This recommended approach applies primarily to doors, but some of the concepts are also applicable to windows, specifically those intended to restrict the movement of fire and smoke in a building.
1. Determine the size and location of doors – A number of factors dictate the number, size and location of doors to be provided in a building. These may be driven by code requirements, the needs of the occupants or by other means.
Locations – Building and life safety codes require doors to be provided in specific locations to protect the door openings. This includes protecting door openings (1) in required fire and smoke rated walls, barriers and partitions, (2) between dwelling units and attached garages, and (3) in various portions of the means of egress system. Besides the locations specified by code requirements, doors are also provided in locations to meet the needs of the building occupants. This includes doors that provide privacy, limit access, isolate equipment, provide security, etc.
Door sizes – Door sizes are sometimes dictated by code requirements. This is particularly true if the door is located in the means of egress system, or is covered by accessibility requirements. The code and building construction documents should be consulted to determine the size and locations of various doors within the building.
2. Confirm if doors and windows are required to limit the passage of fire or smoke – The fire safety system embodied in building code requirements is based on the use of walls, barriers and partitions designed to contain fires and the resulting smoke in certain areas within the building. This concept is often referred to as compartmentation (e.g. containing fires within various fire areas). Codes require doors and windows that protect openings in these walls, barriers and partitions to comply with specific UL standards for safety and performance, and for doors and windows to have certain ratings in order to limit the spread of fire and/or smoke.
To determine the standards and ratings these doors and windows must meet to comply with model codes, one first needs to determine if the walls in which they installed are covered by code requirements.
Fire Walls, Fire Barriers and Fire Partitions
These are all vertical assemblies designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained. All of these assemblies are required to have a fire-resistance rating. However, the hourly rating, construction, extent of continuity and support for these structures varies.
Door and window openings in these assemblies are required to be protected in accordance with the opening protective requirements in the code, and they may be limited to a maximum individual size, maximum area and aggregate width.
Fire door assemblies typically have an hourly fire- protection rating that is nominally less than the corresponding hourly fire-resistance rating of the vertical (wall) assembly in which they are installed. These fire door assemblies should be certified in accordance with UL 10A, 10B, and 10C as applicable, and installed in accordance with NFPA 80.
Fire window assemblies typically have an hourly fire-protection rating somewhat less than the corresponding hourly fire-resistance rating of the vertical (wall) assembly in which they are installed. These fire window assemblies should be certified in accordance with UL 9, and installed in accordance with NFPA 80. Fire window assemblies can be tested and certified for use in positive pressure applications as noted in the individual certifications.
Smoke Barriers and Smoke Partitions
Smoke barriers are continuous membranes, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, that are designed to restrict the movement of smoke through a building. In addition to limiting the spread of smoke, smoke barriers are required to have a fire-resistance rating as specified in the building code. Smoke partitions are continuous vertical membranes, such as a wall, that are also designed to restrict the movement of smoke through a building.
Door and window assemblies in smoke barriers are required to be protected against fire and smoke leakage in accordance with requirements included in the opening protective portion of the code. Door assemblies in smoke partitions are required to be protected by specific construction and air leakage requirements.
To determine the appropriate standards and ratings for doors in these assemblies, refer to the specific code requirements covering the wall assemblies. This will include a leakage rating at a specified pressure and temperature for doors and windows used in smoke barriers and partitions, in conjunction with hourly fire-resistance ratings for doors and windows in smoke barriers.
3. Identify the wall construction – Once the size, location, standards and ratings required for the door and window assemblies are established, the next step is to identify the construction of the walls into which they will be mounted. This is important to know because the construction affects the anchoring of the door frames, transoms and side lights.
For example, fire door and window frames used in walls with wood or steel studs and gypsum wall board construction are anchored differently than frames installed in concrete or block walls. The proper frame should be selected for each of these applications. The frame is to be provided by the manufacturer with anchors selected to match the wall construction being used. The manufacturer’s installation instructions or SDI A250.11 and NFPA 80 should be referred to for these details.
4. Determine the type of door required – There are a wide variety of fire door types that are listed with specific constructions features and for use in specific applications. These include rolling steel, special-purpose, chute type, sliding type, swinging type, and freight or passenger elevator type fire doors.
5. Means of egress considerations – Doors serving a means of egress system for a building are required to comply with specific requirements that will help facilitate the egress of occupants from the building in an emergency. It is important to identify the doors in the building that are subject to specific egress related requirements, as covered in the Means of Egress chapter of the code.
Egress requirements include minimum door widths, projections into the doorways, and door swing requirements. It also includes specific requirements related to the use of revolving, sliding and power operated doors.
Egress requirements also require these doors to be readily operable from the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort, and to include panic hardware that is listed in accordance with UL 305. There are also requirements in place for special locking arrangements that allow for egress while also providing a suitable level of security for the premises. Ensure that the product labeling for the exit hardware device matches the application as panic hardware is only for use on non-rated assemblies while fire exit hardware is to be selected for openings wwhere a fire rating is required.
6. Glazing – Glazing used in fire doors, transoms, sidelights and fire windows is regulated in the opening protectives portion of the code, and may be limited in aggregate and individual sizes and dimensions. Glazing is required to be listed in accordance with UL 9 and/or UL 263 requirements, and may consist of fire-protection or fire-resistance rated glazing. Glazed areas subject to human impact loads, such as in a door or side transom, are also required to meet safety glazing requirements. Wired glass is not permitted in those areas.
7. Select appropriate hardware – In order to operate properly, door hardware needs to be outfitted on the door assemblies. This hardware may include hinges, latches, locks, closers, and fire exit hardware. Most of these products (except leaf style commercial hinges) are required to be Certified in accordance with UL standards.
8. Putting it all together – In order to provide the desired door installation that complies with applicable code requirements it is important to identify the wall construction, determine the type of door required, evaluate means of egress considerations, understand the requirements applicable to glazing, and select the appropriate hardware. Similarly, for a fire window installation it is important to identify the wall construction, the type of glazing required and the appropriate frame for the glazing and wall construction.
6. DIAGRAMS OF COMPLETE ASSEMBLIES
The following diagrams identify the components that make up complete assemblies, along with links to the guide information for the various product categories. Refer to Appendix A for a complete list of related product categories.
ROLLING STEEL FIRE DOOR ILLUSTRATION
DOUBLE FIRE DOOR ILLUSTRATION
APPENDIX A – DOOR, WINDOW AND RELATED HARDWARE CATEGORIES
UL certifies the door, window and related hardware under the following product categories. Click on Category Code links to view UL Guide Information for the product category. The Guide Information also has links to manufacturers whose products are certified under the category. See the UL Product iQ database at www.ul.com/PiQ for details.
APPENDIX B – EXAMPLES OF UL LABELS
Swinging Fire Door Label
Oversized Rolling Steel Door Label
Freight Elevator Door Label
20 Minute Door Frame Label
Doors, Windows and Related Hardware Marking and Application Guide UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC ©2020